A Brief History of the Arabian Horse (2022)

The Arabian horse embodies the history of nations and the growth of cultures, and has had an impact on nearly every other horse breed in existence today. To look at the Arabian is to see more than the beauty of its expressive eyes, dished face and refined features. It is to realize the magnitude of the contribution this one breed has made to the horse industry and the world overall.

A Brief History of the Arabian Horse (1)

Perhaps the Arabian’s legendary history is part of what has contributed to its popularity.

“The Arabian horse was used as an ambassador and was often given as a treasured gift to royalty or important political figures,” says Susan Meyer, vice president at large of the Arabian Horse Association, vice president of the Arabian Jockey Club and a trustee of the Purebred Arabian Trust. She and her husband, Jim, have owned and operated Meyercrest Arabians in North Carolina for 39 years, and have owned, bred and shown horses to championships at the local, regional and national level. They have also owned, bred and raced purebred Arabians across the United States.

“Arabians were also prized as spoils of war, and many governments established purebred breeding programs of their own,” continues Meyer. “As a result, almost all Arabian pedigrees can be traced back to a horse that was part of a historical event or figure. This link with history is a fun and exciting part of owning an Arabian horse.”

Despite the Arabian’s long and alluring past, it’s incredible that the breed has remained so true to its original physical traits, and that it has been able to perpetuate those qualities for so long.

(Video) The Ancient Breed The Arabian Horse

Although the specific area of the Arabian Peninsula where the breed originated can’t be pinpointed, it is widely accepted that around 2500 B.C., the Bedouin people were responsible for developing the desert horses that became the ancestors of the Arabian horse. The nomads’ keen horse sense and meticulous attention to proper care and breeding created an animal that could withstand the harsh environment of the desert, surviving extreme heat and cold with little water and the food they shared with their handlers. A life of travel also required horses with great lung capacity, endurance and stamina.

Fascinating Facts

Many of the Arabian’s characteristics have an ancient religious or superstitious belief attached to them. These traits were highly sought after and became the focus of the Bedouins’ selective breeding practices.

  • Jibbah: The bulging forehead was considered a blessing from God. The Bedouins believed that the larger an Arabian’s forehead, the more blessings he brought with him.
  • Mitbah: The area where the head attaches to the neck—behind the ears along the topline of the neck and the throatlatch. The Mitbah symbolized courage.
  • The Arabian was also prized for a petite, refined muzzle that could “fit into a teacup.”

In addition to wealth and good luck, most of the Arabian’s traits have a significant physical benefit. For instance, the short, dished head and flaring nostrils promote optimum oxygen intake. Furthermore, the Mitbah’s long, fine characteristics prevent the windpipe from being constricted when the head is in a collected frame, which promotes the free flowing of oxygen to the lungs at all times. And the deep chest and wide ribcage permit lung expansion.

  • The breed’s Arabian name “Kohl-ani” is a reference to its eyes and skin. The smooth skin is the color of Kohl, a bluish-black substance that was used in Egypt in ancient times as eyeliner and eye shadow.
  • Mares were prized over stallions because they perpetuated the breed. They were also preferred for war because they wouldn’t nicker to the enemy’s mounts during raids. Mares were so valued that they were rarely sold. If they changed owners, it was considered a very honorable gift.

“The Bedouins and their horses depended on each other for survival, and this interdependency created a very strong human-animal bond,” says Meyer. “Also, only the soundest, most trainable and hardiest individuals survived and bred on. The Bedouins recognized the importance of preserving the attributes that they depended on so much, and their selective breeding practices concentrated on the positive attributes of individual lines. Because of this concentration of blood, even today’s Arabians are able to consistently and predictably pass on their abilities to their offspring. This makes them highly prized as breeding animals.”

Cultural Influence

The Arabian’s physical traits and ability to pass them on to other breeds became a major force behind its appeal to other societies. About 3,500 years ago, the Arabian helped expand empires such as Egypt and shaped cultures by influencing the horses that were used to settle nations, fight wars and grow economies.

When Arabia worked to spread Islam in 600 A.D., the Arabian horse carried Arab warriors throughout the Middle East and as far as North Africa, Spain and China. Through this effort, and as a result of the expansive Christian Crusades during the 11th and 13th centuries, the Arabian horse began leaving its mark on European horses. It added refinement to heavier draft breeds and height to smaller ponies.

(Video) Arabian Horse - Origin, Characteristics and Temperament

However, its greatest influence was likely that of developing the English Thoroughbred. Three stallions—the Godolphin Barb, Darley Arabian, and Byerly Turk—are credited with being the foundation sires of the Thoroughbred breed between the late 1600s and mid-1700s. Today, the majority of Thoroughbreds can be traced to one of these sires. In turn, the Thoroughbred added to the influence of the Arabian by passing on the traits it inherited from this ancient horse to many other breeds, particularly the American Quarter Horse.

“The Arabian has demonstrated a unique ability to consistently pass on its desirable traits,” says Meyer. “For centuries, nearly all light horse breeds and some draft and warmblood breeds have used the Arabian horse to develop or improve their breed. The Arabian’s ability to influence other breeds is well demonstrated by today’s Thoroughbred racehorses. Genetic testing has proven that 95 percent of all modern Thoroughbred racehorses trace to [one of these foundation] stallions. The mighty Secretariat traced to all three of the foundation stallions.”

A Brief History of the Arabian Horse (2)

Rise and Fall of the Arabian

In the 1800s, influential Arabian stud farms were established all over Europe. The historic Crabbet Arabian Stud in England, founded by 15th Baroness Wentworth Lady Anne Blunt and her husband, Wilfred Blunt, produced horses that contributed to the spread of the Arabian breed to Russia, Poland, Australia, Egypt, and North and South America.

In the United States, Randolph Huntington started what is considered to be the first purebred Arabian breeding program in 1888. Later, 45 Arabian horses exhibited at the 1893 Chicago World’s Fair inspired further interest in the breed in America. This led to the formation of the first stud book and the Arabian Horse Club of America registry in 1908, now known as the Arabian Horse Association. Subsequent breeding farms and importations in the early and mid-1920s led to further growth of the breed in the United States. Davenport Arabians and Kellogg Ranch, which was established by cereal tycoon W.K. Kellogg, were two of the breeding farms that moved to the forefront of the industry at that time.

“In the late 1800s and early 1900s, several wealthy American entrepreneurs became enthralled with the history, beauty, athletic ability and unique human-animal bond that the Arabian horse represented,” says Meyer. “They began importing Arabian horses from the Middle East and Europe. These horses were not only used to cross with indigenous horses, but they were also used to establish herds of breeding stock to preserve a source of purebred Arabians here in the United States.

“In the 1960s, 70s and 80s, the large inventory of purebred Arabians that were the result of these breeding programs enabled the Arabian to become affordable for the average American family, and the same attributes that attracted the early breeders to the Arabian made them extremely attractive to American families,” continues Meyer. “During that time period, more than 30,000 purebred Arabian foals were born every year. These were unprecedented numbers that far exceeded any other country, and as a result, there are as many registered Arabian horses in the United States as nearly all other countries combined.”

An unfortunate result of this boom in the U.S. Arabian population was a severe downturn in its popularity during the 1980s. Changes in the economy and indiscriminate breeding gave rise to misconceptions that left reputable breeders and promoters disheartened and struggling to pick up the pieces.

“After the breed became extremely affordable, it was also embraced by many celebrities, and the most valued breeding stock and show horses sold for astronomical amounts,” says Meyer. “These were the horses with the highest profiles and the stories that were most often publicized, so the perception that Arabians are extremely expensive still persists. However, Arabian horses run the gamut of price ranges, and the vast majority of them are as affordable as any breed.”

(Video) Brief History of Arabian Horses

Making a Comeback

A new focus in the 1990s on ability and promoting the Arabian as an all-around performer and family horse helped launch a resurgence for the breed. Because of this, Arabian owners enjoy participating in various equestrian sports today, from reining to dressage. The breed particularly excels in endurance and trail riding.

“Many people in the modern dressage world value Arabian blood to bring lightness and suppleness to their horses,” says Meyer. “Even working western disciplines appreciate the endurance that Arabians can add to their horses that must work long hours over rough terrain. And in distance riding events, the Arabian is king. All of the major distance events are dominated by Arabians.”

The Arabian also continues to fight an enduring misconception about being high-strung, which has a lot to do with the breed’s past, says Meyer.

“The most prized horses of the Bedouins were the mares that were used in raiding other tribes,” explains Meyer. “A mare not only had to be unfailingly loyal to her master, but she also had to be fierce and courageous in battle. The uninformed can believe Arabians are naturally aggressive, when in fact, these traits are learned behaviors.

“The natural brilliance that the Arabian displays while at play has been emphasized in the show-ring in the halter division,” adds Meyer. “This learned behavior has only perpetuated the myth that the Arabian is flighty and nervous. This isn’t the way the Arabian deports itself day in and day out. The Arabian was the original family horse and is still an ideal horse for families today.”

A Bright Future

With so many qualities to admire about the Arabian horse and an exhibit such as the Arabian Galleries to promote it, the breed can look forward to maintaining its popularity in the horse community, according to Meyer.

A Brief History of the Arabian Horse (3)
“The same qualities that propelled the Arabian horse throughout the world are what ensure its longevity and continued popularity,” she explains. “The Arabian has proven that it has the ability to adapt and be successful. One horse can serve as a mount for [adults] and children in multiple disciplines. In today’s economy, with ever increasing pressures on space and the environment, the ability to serve multiple demands bodes well for the Arabian breed.”

(Video) Brief History of Arabian Horses

Meyer believes two trends that have made their way into the Arabian horse industry will propel the breed into a successful future.

“Probably one of the most significant new trends has been the natural horsemanship approach to training,” says Meyer. “It’s especially suited to the Arabian personality. Arabians are naturally curious and interested in people, and particularly enjoy the interaction that is so important in this type of training. Arabians learn much faster and are easier to deal with using this approach versus other methods of training that depend more on negative reinforcement.”

Like most attributes about the Arabian horse, Meyer says this inclination toward natural horsemanship is linked to the breed’s past. “Because Arabians had to live among the Bedouin families, even residing in the tents with them at times, they had to be particularly docile and tractable,” explains Meyer. “The foals were weaned only a few days after birth and were raised by the women and children on camel’s milk and dates. The foals’ lives depended on their bond with humans, and over the centuries, the foals that had this affinity for connecting with humans have been the ones that bred on. The natural horsemanship methods allow this connection to develop to a very high level.”

Meyer says another trend that has secured the Arabian’s top position in the horse industry is the baby boomers’ growing interest in riding, and their desire for suitable mounts that are both athletic and reliable.

“The Arabian’s sensitivity and athletic abilities are particularly suited to the athletic challenges that the mature rider deals with, particularly in competitive disciplines,” says Meyer. “The strength and stamina of the rider is not as crucial when riding Arabians, as they are so easy to collect and maneuver.”

With an appeal that has drawn people of so many different backgrounds to the Arabian horse over the ages, the breed is sure to continue its influential role for a long time
to come.

Part II: A Fitting Tribute to the Arabian Horse >>

Liked this article? Here’s more on Arabian Horses:
Arabian Horse Breed Profile
Arabian Horse Screensaver and Desktop Wallpapers
A Winning Combination: The Half-Arabian

This article originally appeared in the January 2011 issue of Horse Illustrated.Click here to subscribe.

(Video) 8 Fascinating Facts about Arabian Horses!

FAQs

How was the Arabian horse created? ›

Arabian horses were domesticated by the Bedouin.

The Bedouin people lived a sparse life and needed a horse that could survive on little water and pasture. Darwin's theory was in action, the weak were culled, and the strong survived and adapted. Arabians developed into a fast, tough, robust breed.

What was special about the Arabian horse? ›

Arabian horse, earliest improved breed of horse, valued for its speed, stamina, beauty, intelligence, and gentleness. The breed's long history has been obscured by legend, but it had been developed in Arabia by the 7th century ce.

When did the Arabian horse originated? ›

While the very beginnings of the Arabian horse are hidden in the ancient desert sands, most experts agree Arabians originated in the vicinity of the Arabian Peninsula. The Bedouin tribes have traced their common history with these horses back to 3000 B.C., keeping meticulous ancestral records, or pedigrees.

What are 3 interesting facts about Arabian horses? ›

Here are some interesting facts about Arabian horses that you may not know. The Arabian breed is over 5,000 years old and is known as the oldest breed and the first domesticated breed of horse. Arabians were originally bred in the Middle East. The Arabian horse is the oldest purebred horse in the world.

Why do Arabs love horses? ›

Traditionally seen as a symbol of chivalry, nobility and pride, Arabian horses happen to be one of the most popular breeds in the world. Considered to be one of the oldest and purest horse breeds in the world, Arabian horses were believed to be born in the desert and have always been in contact with humans.

Why is it called Arabian horse? ›

The Arabian or Arab horse (Arabic: الحصان العربي [ ħisˤaːn ʕarabiː], DMG ḥiṣān ʿarabī) is a breed of horse that originated on the Arabian Peninsula. With a distinctive head shape and high tail carriage, the Arabian is one of the most easily recognizable horse breeds in the world.

Why do Arabian horses hold their tails up? ›

Since horses use their tails to communicate their moods, many raise their tail to show freshness and excitement. The Arabians carry their tail high as a sign of pride and their fiery temperament. Since the horses were used as warhorses, they have always been high-spirited and the high-set tail is a sign of that trait.

Why Arabian horses are fast? ›

The fastest speed that an Arabian can reach is 40 mph. Arabians tend to be a bit smaller than Thoroughbreds or Quarter horses and are more petite in bone size. Their small, lightweight build likely helps them to be one of the fastest horse breeds.

How old do Arabian horses live? ›

Arabians. Arabian horses typically live 25-30 years. While this is similar to the general horse population, there are documented instances of Arabian horses living well into their 40's. The oldest living Arabian is a 46-year-old Polish Arabian mare named Magic.

Are Arabian horses friendly? ›

Arabians are outstanding riding horses that can be used for pleasure or racing. These horses are known to be extremely friendly and loyal to their owners.

Why do Arabians have one less rib? ›

Additionally, they also have one less in their tail, which is what gives them their famous high tail set. And for their ribs, they have 17 instead of 18 like other breeds of horses do. And this unique rib cage improves their stamina when running long distances.

Who was the first Arabian horse? ›

The exact origins of the Arabian horse are still a mystery. Its distinctive silhouette is first seen in the art of ancient Egypt more than 3,500 years ago, but it was the nomadic peoples of the Arabian desert, known as the Bedouin, who created and refined the pure breed that exists today.

Is the Arabian horse the oldest breed? ›

The Arabian the oldest breed of horse to walk on this planet. Archaeological proof suggests the Arabian horse dates back over 5000 years in the middle east. Today these beautiful horses can be found all over the world.

Who brought Arabian horses to America? ›

Nathan Harrison of Virginia imported the first Arabian stallion in 1725. This horse reportedly sired 300 foals from grade mares. Our first President, George Washington, rode an Arabian horse. The first breeder of consequence, however, was A.

Why do Arabian horses have a curved nose? ›

The Arabian horse's typical dished face is one of its most iconic characteristics of the breed. The shape helps the horse breathe in its original desert environment, where the air is dry. Combined with large, wide nostrils, it enhances airflow into the lungs, which gives the horse its famous endurance.

What horse is the father of all racehorses? ›

The father of ALL racehorses: Scientists discover majority of modern thoroughbreds are descended from the British stallion Eclipse. Modern racehorses are virtually all descended from a legendary British stallion called Eclipse, a new study has confirmed.

Are Arabian horses fast? ›

Arabian horses are fast; they can run upwards of forty miles per hour, quicker than most other horse breeds. They are expensive, but not the most costly of all horses. And finally, Arabians are not naturally gaited, even though some bloodlines of Arabians are gaited.

Are Arabian horses born black? ›

All Arabian Horses have black skin under their coats, which was essential for surviving under the desert sun. The only exception is horses with the rare dominant white coloring, meaning their skin has no pigment cells. The skin under white markings such as a star or blaze is also pink.

What do horses symbolize in Islam? ›

Horses are also symbolic of the first generation of Muslims and that generation's successful military campaigns, and are thus often employed to evoke religious sentiments with regard to the military victories of Muhammad and his companions.

Can Arabian horses jump? ›

Arabian horses are arguably the most versatile breed out there, doing everything from reining to saddleseat to endurance to jumping. They are the oldest horse breed and have been seen in just about every show ring out there. Due to their agility, stamina, and athleticism, they can make great jumpers.

Can you get the Arabian horse back if it dies? ›

CAN YOU GET YOUR HORSE BACK IF IT DIES? RED DEAD ... - YouTube

How do you know if a horse likes you? ›

If a horse likes you, they will often come up to greet you when they hear you coming. They may run up to the pasture fence or be eagerly waiting for you at their stall door. What is this? If a horse is eager to greet you, that is their way of showing they like you.

Why do horses flick their heads? ›

Why do horses toss their heads? Horses toss their heads for a variety of reasons. Some of the most common reasons are dental problems, physical ailments, biting bugs, improper bit or saddle fit, too much energy, or poor handling on part of the rider.

Who is the fastest horse in history? ›

This is a Guinness World Record was achieved by a horse called Winning Brew. She was trained by Francis Vitale in the United States. The race was recorded at the Penn National Race Course, Grantville, Pennsylvania, United States. Winning Brew covered the quarter-mile (402 metres) in 20.57 seconds.

How much do Arabian horses cost? ›

Thanks to their gorgeous looks and versatility, a well-bred Arabian horse could cost you anywhere from $25,000 to $300,000.

How long can an Arabian horse gallop? ›

The best result at a gallop

Lighter Arabians are slightly slower and start feeling fatigued after 1 to 1.5 miles (1.6 – 2.4 km). Only rare racehorses can withstand 2 to 2.5 miles (3.2 – 4 km/h) in full gallop.

What does it mean when a horse nudges you with its nose? ›

Horses can nudge you with their nose for a variety of reasons. The key reasons are likely to be: pushing you out of the way, encouraging you to give them treats, rudeness, itching, and affection. Sometimes it just genuinely means they want to play.

Who is the oldest horse alive? ›

World's oldest horse, Shayne, 51, lives in Brentwood at Remus Sanctuary.

How many days can Arabian horse go without water? ›

How long can Arabian Horses go without water? An Arabian horse can go approximately 72 hours without water. Generally, all mammals cannot live without water for long except camels.

Are Arabians hard to ride? ›

Arabians are quite small compared to other popular horse breeds such as the Thoroughbred or Quarter Horse, which makes them less intimidating to people who are nervous of riding and falling. That being said, they are spirited horses who require a lot of firm handling.

How do Arabian horses Bond? ›

FAST XP BONDING To New ARABIAN Horse & Expectations - YouTube

Are Arabians easy keepers? ›

Speed, endurance, agility, and loyalty were prized among the Bedouin people—only the best horses were kept. Food was scarce and a “hard keeper” would not have survived in these conditions. Therefore, today, Arabians are generally known to be easy keepers.

What do you feed Arabian horses? ›

About 80 to 90 percent of your Arabian horse's diet should consist of forage. Arabian horses require non-irrigated pasture and grass hay to forage in. However, you can supplement your horse's diet with a grain like barley, corn, and oats.

What color are Arabian horses? ›

The Arabian Horse Association recognizes bay, gray, chestnut, black and roan as coat colors for Purebred Arabian horses. Though Purebreds do not carry dilution genes such as cream or dun, they can be crossed successfully with other breeds to produce Half-Arabian horses in an array of colors.

How many Arabian horses are there? ›

According to WAHO there is now a total of more than one million Arabian horses in 62 countries. More than half of them (663,833) are registered in the USA, followed by Canada (48.010). The count for comparatively small Qatar is 2,774 registered horses, ranking it among the top 25 countries.

How many hands is an Arabian horse? ›

The average Arabian stand 15 hands at the withers and weighs 1,000 pounds. The Arabian is the oldest purebred in the world and foundation horse for many modern light breeds including the Thoroughbred, Quarter Horse, Morgan, and American Saddlebred.

What is the rarest horse breed? ›

The Galiceño is a critically endangered horse that has a long history in the Americas. It is estimated that there are fewer than 100 pure Galiceños left, making this the rarest horse breed in the world.

What is the purest horse breed? ›

There is only one breed of Icelandic horse and it is the purest breed of horse in the world. It was introduced by the first Nordic settlers and is a stocky, thick-set and muscular horse.

Who was the first horse in the world? ›

A Brief History of Horses

By 55 million years ago, the first members of the horse family, the dog-sized Hyracotherium, were scampering through the forests that covered North America.

What state has the most Arabian horses? ›

Today, not surprisingly, California with 42,404 purebred Arabians registered has the largest horse population in the United States.

Are Arabian horses over bred? ›

Furthermore, virtually every horse fancier can recite the story of the influence of Arabian stallions in founding the modern Thoroughbred breed. “To its detractors, the Arabian represents an overly inbred horse breed with a high incidence of inherited autosomal recessive diseases.

Who was the first Arabian horse? ›

The exact origins of the Arabian horse are still a mystery. Its distinctive silhouette is first seen in the art of ancient Egypt more than 3,500 years ago, but it was the nomadic peoples of the Arabian desert, known as the Bedouin, who created and refined the pure breed that exists today.

Why were Arabian horses bred? ›

The Bedouin way of life depended on camels and horses: Arabians were bred to be war horses with speed, endurance, soundness, and intelligence. Because many raids required stealth, mares were preferred over stallions as they were quieter, and therefore would not give away the position of the fighters.

Why do Arabian horses hold their tails up? ›

Since horses use their tails to communicate their moods, many raise their tail to show freshness and excitement. The Arabians carry their tail high as a sign of pride and their fiery temperament. Since the horses were used as warhorses, they have always been high-spirited and the high-set tail is a sign of that trait.

Who brought Arabian horses to America? ›

Nathan Harrison of Virginia imported the first Arabian stallion in 1725. This horse reportedly sired 300 foals from grade mares. Our first President, George Washington, rode an Arabian horse. The first breeder of consequence, however, was A.

Why Arabian horses are fast? ›

The fastest speed that an Arabian can reach is 40 mph. Arabians tend to be a bit smaller than Thoroughbreds or Quarter horses and are more petite in bone size. Their small, lightweight build likely helps them to be one of the fastest horse breeds.

Why do Arabian horses look so different? ›

#4 – Missing Bones. Many Arabians have one less vertebrae in their backs, which accounts for their shorter length. Additionally, they also have one less in their tail, which is what gives them their famous high tail set. And for their ribs, they have 17 instead of 18 like other breeds of horses do.

Can Arabian horses jump? ›

Arabian horses are arguably the most versatile breed out there, doing everything from reining to saddleseat to endurance to jumping. They are the oldest horse breed and have been seen in just about every show ring out there. Due to their agility, stamina, and athleticism, they can make great jumpers.

Are Arabian horses friendly? ›

Arabians are outstanding riding horses that can be used for pleasure or racing. These horses are known to be extremely friendly and loyal to their owners.

Is the Arabian horse the oldest breed? ›

The Arabian the oldest breed of horse to walk on this planet. Archaeological proof suggests the Arabian horse dates back over 5000 years in the middle east. Today these beautiful horses can be found all over the world.

Which country has the most Arabian horses? ›

According to WAHO there is now a total of more than one million Arabian horses in 62 countries. More than half of them (663,833) are registered in the USA, followed by Canada (48.010). The count for comparatively small Qatar is 2,774 registered horses, ranking it among the top 25 countries.

Can you get the Arabian horse back if it dies? ›

CAN YOU GET YOUR HORSE BACK IF IT DIES? RED DEAD ... - YouTube

How do you know if a horse likes you? ›

If a horse likes you, they will often come up to greet you when they hear you coming. They may run up to the pasture fence or be eagerly waiting for you at their stall door. What is this? If a horse is eager to greet you, that is their way of showing they like you.

Are Arabian horses faster than thoroughbreds? ›

Among the different breeds of horses, the Thoroughbred horses are the fastest breed, while the Quarter horse breed comes second and, finally, the Arabian breed comes third.

What state has the most Arabian horses? ›

Today, not surprisingly, California with 42,404 purebred Arabians registered has the largest horse population in the United States.

What is the fastest horse ever recorded? ›

Quarter horses racing 440-yard have been timed running 55 mph, the fastest recorded speed of any horse. Guinness World Record recognizes Winning Brew, a Thoroughbred, as the fastest horse in the world at 43.97 mph.

How fast can an Arabian horse run? ›

Arabian horses are fast; they can run upwards of forty miles per hour, quicker than most other horse breeds.

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